ICCO Europe – Combating Misinformation

On Thursday 6th June, ICCO European members gathered in Rome, with the theme of combating misinformation running throughout the day culminating in an open debate. PR association leaders from fifteen countries were represented and have all agreed to work collaboratively on tackling this issue through affiliations with international institutions, journalism bodies and lawmakers. More detail will follow from ICCO in the coming weeks but for now, some of the insights are available below.

Full event slide deck

European Council slides

European Council article

 

PR agencies must acknowledge common ground to enhance our professional standing

Jon Meakin – Chair, AMEC Agency Group, and Global Head of Strategic Services, Grayling

PR agency people are a strange breed – and I say that as a longstanding member of that tribe myself.

We are full of contradictions: Fiercely competitive with one another, and with rival agencies, but at the same time extremely fickle, very often willing to jump ship to one of those rivals for a fancy new title, a salary bump, or some other perceived advancement.

But throw a few folk from different agencies together in a bar, and with enough (ahem) lubrication we soon discover that our agencies aren’t so different, after all. We all struggle with the same pressures and challenges – attracting and retaining good staff, adapting to a rapidly and continually changing media landscape, maintaining profitability when clients are expected to do more with less… not to mention the egos, the personalities, the petty politics. As a colleague of mine is fond of saying: “Same sh*t, different logo”.

That is not to say agencies do not cultivate distinct cultures, value propositions and services – they do. But let’s face it: There is much more that unites us than divides us.

Giving it all away

One common gripe in the agency world is the expectation that we should pitch for free. And it’s true, an awful lot of work goes into every new business pitch. Tens of thousands in staff hours, as well as hard costs, and an expectation that we should effectively give away our strategic thinking and our best creative ideas for free, in the hope that we will be appointed following an often long and torturous pitch process.

Personally, I think that’s just the cost of doing business. You have to speculate to accumulate, and there are plenty of other industries where much more is invested in speculative sales pitches.

But what I do find bizarre is that once we have been hired, we often continue to give away our most valuable strategic thinking – voluntarily.

I’m talking about measurement and evaluation.

Recognizing the value of our efforts

I’m making a generalization here, but for the most part, measurement and evaluation is not something we do well in the PR profession.

For years I’ve seen “measurement and evaluation” lumped in with “account management” during the budgeting process, and that part of the budget squeezed to a minimum because we want to devote as much of the budget as possible to execution. And then the “measurement” actually ends up being little more than “reporting”, invariably left to an intern or junior account executive to do little more than count clippings and calculate “total reach” in some backward-looking report that we call an evaluation, but actually isn’t.

Sound familiar?

Why are so many of us so afraid to budget for, and undertake real evaluation, that analyses outcomes and impacts, and not merely outputs? That becomes the basis for informing future strategies instead of simply being a look back at recent history? That acknowledges what has not worked, as well as what has, so that we can make intelligent decisions and continually improve?

PR: The poor relation

There are probably as many reasons for this as there are agencies, but it mostly boils down to a few key factors:

Firstly, we (and our clients) are prisoners of our own experience – we’ve always done things in a certain way, so there is a resistance to change.

Secondly, there is a skills question. When I and my peers came up through the profession, the importance of writing was drummed into us above all else. And we continue to recruit in our own image, hiring wordsmiths when we also need data scientists (as well as coders, film-makers, graphic designers…).

And then there’s the question of budget, which is a circular one: PR budgets are often modest, so we don’t set aside budget to measure and evaluate, and therefore we can’t prove whether what we did worked or not, so budgets remain small… and so it goes on. And PR remains the poor relation of the marketing mix.

It’s time to break that cycle.

Common Ground

It’s time to acknowledge that in the area of measurement and evaluation, perhaps more than any other, we have much in common, and much to learn from each other, if we could but check our egos and put aside those rivalries.

I am proud to be spearheading ‘Common Ground’, a new initiative by AMEC (The Association for the Measurement and Evaluation of Communication) to further the adoption of best practice measurement and evaluation within the PR agency sector.

How are we going to achieve that? By creating a forum through which agency people can speak to, and learn from each other, in a non-competitive environment.

Radical? Maybe. Bonkers? I think not. No, I firmly believe we all have something to learn from each other. There are so many issues common to all agencies: How to persuade clients (especially those with modest resources) to invest in measurement and evaluation? How much should that investment be? Is there a minimum?

How do you bring about a change of culture within your agency, to embrace the value and importance of robust measurement and evaluation? In particular, how do evaluation advocates within agencies persuade colleagues to ‘sacrifice’ a proportion of a client’s fee to allocate to measurement and evaluation? And how much should that be, especially for smaller clients?

How can we educate clients and move them away from old-fashioned models and metrics?

How do you measure effectively for clients on a shoestring budget?

How do you build an in-house measurement or insights practice from the ground up?

Which measurement and evaluation companies are best for what sort of client? Which tools are best used for which metrics?

How can we stop measurement being backward-looking, and make evaluation a forward-looking planning tool, prescriptive rather than descriptive?

Time to show our hand

Why should agencies give away their ‘secret sauce’ to their competitors? News flash: There is no secret sauce.

Different agencies certainly approach measurement and evaluation in slightly different ways, but the principles are the same. Best practice exists – and is freely available on the AMEC website for any agency that wants to adopt it.

And if you don’t believe me, ask my peers at Fleishman-Hillard, Golin, H+K, Ketchum, Mischief, The RED Consultancy… they are all in on the Common Ground initiative, and want to share their knowledge, their skills and their experience for the benefit of the whole profession.

Through AMEC, we will be organizing events and sharing content in the coming months, in London, New York, San Francisco, Hong Kong, Dubai and elsewhere. For details check the AMEC website or drop me an email – we’d love to have you involved.

It’s time to come together to raise the standard of measurement and evaluation throughout the PR agency world. Let’s find that common ground, and build upon it.

If you would like to get involved in the AMEC Agency Group’s Common Ground initiative, please email AMEC Agency Group chair, Jon Meakin jon.meakin@grayling.com, or AMEC managing director, Johna Burke johna@amecorg.com.

Visit the House of PR at Cannes Lions Festival on Wednesday 19th June at 11am to join a discussion about the Common Ground initiative.

ICCO Mid-Year Round Up with Elise Mitchell, ICCO President

Elise Mitchell, ICCO President provides a round up of all the newly latest member benefits, projects and events for 2019!

Highlights include

*NEW* ICCO Resource Library Launch – here

*Biggest Ever* Cannes Lions #HouseofPR ,  June 17th -21st here

*NEW* Agency Finder – coming soon!

#PowerofEthics – September 2019

ICCO Global Summit, 9th -10th October 2019

 

ICCO Africa Group (IAG) meets in Kigali, Rwanda

The first meeting of the ICCO Africa Group (IAG) took place on Monday 13th May 2019, ahead of the APRA Conference in Kigali, Rwanda.

The group comprised of representatives from national PR associations, institutes and societies across Africa with the purpose of discussing opportunities for collaboration, sharing of information, ideas and resources. The next aim to discuss how to share and promote the best creative, successful African PR campaigns, case studies and work to the rest of the world.

The group agreed the following actions and initiatives:

Professional Development

  • ICCO to work with IAG representatives in order to develop face to face training courses in hubs across the continent, starting with Lagos. This training will be developed from
  • ICCO courses in consultation with local representatives for relatable examples. Local associations and societies will manage the marketing of courses to secure maximum attendee levels and help reduce costs.
  • We will start with “Crisis Communications in a Digital World” and
    “Award winner Masterclass sessions”
  • ICCO to offer a discount to APRA members for online training and videos.

Research and Resources

  • ICCO to promote existing online resources to APRA members and members of other PR associations and institutes.
  • Research conducted in Africa to be promoted to the rest of the world through ICCO Library.
  • Research to be conducted jointly between PRCA, ICCO and African PR organisations in order to get larger data samples and produce more accurate results.

Raising the profile of African PR in the Rest of the World

  • ICCO to review costs for entering Global Awards will offer discounts for local award winners. The goal is making sure individual nations of Africa gain more recognition, distinct from the continent as a whole.
  • ICCO, with PRCA, APRA and IAG members, will create and promote courses and guides on “How to win global awards” using videos and guidance from SABRE Africa winners and Cannes Lions winners.
  • ICCO will offer special discount to APRA members to attend the ICCO Global Summit in Lisbon and procure speakers on topics beyond the analysis of the African Market.
    Raising profile of PR to leaders in Africa
  • ICCO will look to support and amplify the coverage of existing efforts by APRA to raise awareness of PR at events like the African CEO Forum and other non-PR specific events attended by politicians and leaders.
  • ICCO will amplify coverage and message of APRA relationship with African Union as a model of practical influencing.

Standards and Ethics

  • ICCO will target existing ICCO members from networked agencies like Edelman to drive the adoption of best practice standards across the group and affiliates, including use of self-assessment and business improvement tools like CMS. With long-term aim of these practices being adopted across markets locally.
  • The IAG members will engage their communities, agencies and consultants to take part on “#POWERofETHICS” in September. An online social media campaign to promote case studies of ethical PR and PRing ethics through blogs, guidance pieces and events e.g. interview with the award-winning Anti Child Abuse campaign from Ogilvy Ghana.
  • The ICCO Africa Group has agreed participants from Cote D’Ivoire, Ghana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda as well as associations APRA, PRISA (Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland and South Africa) and PRCA MENA (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt) with more to come and all nations of Africa welcome. We plan to continue communication to achieve the above goals and meet again in May next year in Accra, Ghana ahead of the APRA 2020 conference.

Going forward this collaborative initiative will be run by Bridget Von Holdt, ICCO Africa President and Yomi Badejo-Okusanya, APRA President.

To find out more about the ICCO Africa Group, please contact Rob Morbin, ICCO General Manager, rob.morbin@iccopr.com

Don’t Cry Wolf join ICCO House of PR in Cannes

Don’t Cry Wolf have become the first ever start up agency to be a platinum sponsor of ICCO’s House of PR at the Cannes Lions Festival of Creativity. They join WE Communications and FlieshmanHillard as the first three to confirm for the 2019 festival.

Francis Ingham, Chief Executive, ICCO said

“For the past five years, the ICCO House of PR has offered PR pros at Cannes a base to come together and exchange ideas on creativity. Previously, it’s only been global agencies that have been present here -so it’s fantastic to welcome the presence of our first-ever start up agency official sponsor. Don-t Cry Wolf -a true leader of the pack.”

John Brown, Founder and CEO, Don’t Cry Wolf has said

“It’s not just about the rosé!”

“We’ve got something to share about how creativity can, and should, be nurtured with social good in mind. Also, we want to discuss how a creative agency can be run with a net positive impact on the environment and society.

So, we’ll be curating a day at Cannes Lions where Don’t Cry Wolf and some of our B Corp buddies, both agency and brand side, will be taking the stage to talk about creating campaigns with an eye on improving society. We’ll also explore purpose washing and how organisations have to change their setup first before they start banging on about positive outcomes.”

ICCO will be rallying the industry once again at our Cannes Uncovered event on 30th January to preview changes to Cannes in 2019 and provide some expert advice for judges to ensure PR winners across the board in June. Details here.

The House of PR is the independent hub for PR professionals at Cannes Lions to meet, work, relax, learn, and have fun. Attracting the biggest names in PR throughout the week, it’s also a perfect cost-effective way to host your own events, workshops, seminars, drinks receptions, or showcase work and technology in the heart of the festival.
This year we have a space that is five times bigger, allowing for larger events, displays, and workshops. ICCO is an official sponsor of Cannes Lions giving the House of PR sponsors exposure, credibility, and a direct connection with the competition.

For more information of the ICCO House of PR at Cannes Lions 2019 contact rob.morbin@iccopr.com

ICCO Summit: ‘Agencies Must Expand Swim Lanes’ Says Ketchum’s Barri Rafferty

Maja Pawinska Sims, Editor, The Holmes Report

For the original article on The Holmes Report, click here.

Ketchum global CEO Barri Rafferty told delegates that PR agencies have a golden opportunity to reinvent themselves.

DUBLIN — Agencies have a golden opportunity to “expand our swim lane”, according to Ketchum global CEO Barri Rafferty, speaking at the International Communications Consultancy Organisation (ICCO) Global Summit.

She told delegates: “Sometimes we’ve narrowly defined our discipline and thus the world around us has too. We need to really think about what we want to stand for as PR agencies, how we want to redefine what a communications consultancy is, and how we become a bigger part of the business model to drive brand awareness, reputation and sales.”

One key way in which agencies could reinvent themselves was through better business acumen, she said: “We not only want to help clients through organisational change, we also want to create opportunities to grow our own business.”

Creative diversity was also another area that Rafferty mooted as being ripe for improvement: “We surround ourselves with too many people who think alike, and it creates a creative echo chamber. Are we bringing enough different types of people, from different backgrounds, around the table to create different types of creativity?”

A third way in which agencies could seize the advantage was through understanding brands’ shifts from “marketing to sell, to marketing to serve.” Commenting on Nike’s Colin Kaepernick ad – the most referenced image of the entire conference – Rafferty said: “Nike actually took no risk with the ad: they totally understand their target audience. They played to their young core, to black Americans, who they know will support their brand, and sales went up 31% in week one.

“Brands like Nike have been authentic in how they serve and stand up for their core market. More and more brands are taking a stance on political and social issues, so we need to do the research and analytics to make sure we really understand that brand’s consumer.”

Finally, Rafferty said PR professionals could expand their remit by acting as clients’ conscience: “Leaders today have more visible personas than ever before and our expectation of them is higher than before. We’ve seen CEOs hurt their reputation. We have to help guide and fix, but a lot of CEOs are role models for change and use their positions for the greater good. We can be their conscience.”

ICCO Summit: ‘PR Will Get Its Swagger Back’

Maja Pawinska Sims, Editor, The Holmes Report

For the original article in The Holmes Report, click here.

Demand for credible, verifiable branded content will rocket; pressure on holding groups will continue, says WE international president Alan VanderMolen.

DUBLIN — Public relations will “get its swagger back” in 2019, according to WE Communications president, international Alan VanderMolen.

Outlining his predictions for the industry in the year ahead at the International Communications Consultancy Organisation (ICCO) Global Summit in Dublin, VanderMolen said: ““PR will get its swagger back as demand for engagement, and credible, verifiable branded content sky rockets. It’s been a tough few years but if we focus on demand for engagement over earned media, we have an issues-rich and opportunity-rich environment.”

VanderMolen quoted some of the findings from WE’s recent Brands In Motion research, showing that while consumers expect and demand technological innovation, they are also increasingly fearful of the potential for technology to have a negative impact, from data security to driverless cars.

He said: “Consumers are now holding brands responsible for ethical use of technology, and it’s a brilliant opportunity for PR to get back in the boardroom.”

Outlining the challenge for PR professionals, VanderMolen said: “We must understand the technologies and platforms that are shaping our business environment. We must re-emerge as the moral and ethical voice guiding brands on what they should do rather than what they can do. We must regain the ground in the c-suite that has been ceded to CMOs, CTOs and legal counsel. And we must master insights and analytics to maintain credibility.”

Another prediction for 2019 was more consolidation within the marketing holding groups: “With the exception of Publicis, which has Sapient, holding companies aren’t equipped to have management and performance consultancy conversations.

“Budgets are being slashed, outpacing holding companies’ ability to invest in technology like the management consultancies have, and the management consultancies are back-integrating by buying creative shops. Consolidation is real and it’s creating real pressure for the holding companies, but it will also create an opportunity for mid-size agencies to get hold of talent.”

It’s all about talent and purpose. Takeaways from the ICCO Global Summit 2018

Originally written by Lindsay Paterson, Leadership coach, mentor, consultant, CoachingConsultants

To read the original article posted on Linday’s LinkedIn, click here.

Loved this great global event this year. Here are my main takeaways in no particular order:-

  1. Ad agencies are winning Cannes PR Lions for what are effectively public affairs campaigns. We talk about convergence and overlap between the comms disciplines a lot, but this, to me, is a biggie. The ad agencies win budgets which are many times that which a public affairs agency could expect. Why? Because they are aligning with the marketing function where the money is and focusing advice and spend on issues which are of strategic importance to the business and which matter to their clients and customers. This example of the Trash Isles campaign blew me away – getting the UN to recognise the Pacific trash patch as a country triggers all sorts of legal responsibilities and is public affairs campaigning at its best – even if it did come from an ad agency. The example shared by Aedhmar Hynes of Text100 of this film made by a Danish Financial Services Union about gender equality viewed through the eyes of children is equally powerful (and makes me cry every time…). Unions, businesses and associations making the case to change policy, through advertising techniques – that’s the future, particularly when trust in the political process is particularly low. Does the public affairs industry step up to deliver the same impact? Not always in my view….
  2. Nike was the star of the show at this Summit with speaker after speaker apologising for showing the Kaepernik ad again. Stand for something and get a boost on the stockmarket. That was the message loud and clear from agency leaders last week.
  3. Lil Micheala – I didn’t know about this AI Instagram star. Apparently now that she has a million followers, this bot has moved on to social issues and is raising awareness about kids held in detention camps for example. She’s tapping into what her followers care about and businesses should be doing the same, not only for consumers, but because increasingly, our employees expect us to stand up for what we believe in too.
  4. Talent and diversity were high on the agenda for many – with consensus being that clients benefit most when the message taps into the audience we are trying to reach. If we are one-dimensional in our hires, we’ll never be able to get the message right in this world where people are kicking back against the establishment.
  5. SOS: Stop sending out stuff, said Alex Aitken of the Government Communication Service. Music to my ears. I spend a lot of time talking to people about the simple act of asking why before you send anything or even begin work on it. Doing it the same way is doing it the stale way.
  6. Make yourself uncomfortable. Chimes with the above. Applies to hires, messaging, diversity, consultation. If we can adopt a growth mindset, rather than a fixed mindset, our businesses are more likely to be able to accept, and adapt to the challenges facing them.
  7. One P and L. Another one which was music to my ears. Barbara Bates, Global CEO of Hotwire swears by it. Stops the squabbling and does away with a mindset of protecting and enhancing offices or teams. Builds collaboration.
  8. Purpose. Purpose was everywhere. Quote of the day for me: If employees are so important to purpose, why aren’t we asking them what it is?

Thank you to the whole ICCO and PRCA teams and particularly to Elise Mitchell, the President, for a fabulous conference. See you all next year.

Truth or dare?

We are living in an era where Turks that burn dollars and smash their iPhones are joined by Americans destroying their Nike socks and shoes. Back in the days we had witnessed those who burned their Italian shoes and cars that are perhaps bought with long-term loans and many financial difficulties. History really does repeat itself. I am sure there is a term for this kind of behavior in psychology, but since our interest lies in “brand reputation”, we will turn our attention to this aspect of the issue.   

Why do Americans today burn their Nike socks and shoes? Because there is a brand-new movement happening called #JustBurnIt. 

As you can easily imagine, they are protesting Nike with a play on the brand’s legendary slogan Just Do It. But who are they? They are the people who criticize Colin Kaepernick, one of the faces of Nike’s 30th anniversary ad campaign. And who is Colin Kaepernick? He is the former San Francisco 49ers quarterback. Apart from being named as a runner up on TIME’s Person of the Year 2017 and receiving many awards such as the Muhammad Ali Legacy Award, he is currently facing backlash by a considerable part of the American population, including President Donald Trump himself.  

But what is it about Kaepernick that sharply divided US opinion between resentment and admiration? Kaepernick has started a movement by refusing to stand for the national anthem before games in 2016 with the aim to draw attention to the “Black Lives Matter” movement, launched to protest police brutality and discrimination against black people. And he did. Many people applauded his courage, and other players have also joined the protest. Awards and honors that I briefly mentioned above came thereafter.     

At this point, Nike took the step that now makes us all wonder if it is a moment of truth or dare. Colin Kaepernick is among the names that are being featured on Nike’s 30th anniversary ad campaign, along with Serena Williams, Odell Beckham Jr. and Shaquem Griffin. With a reference to his civil disobedience, Kaepernick’s ad reads: “Believe in something. Even if it means sacrificing everything”.  

Kaepernick is not Nike’s first “controversial” choice. The brand previously used Lance Armstrong in its advertising despite his doping incident, Maria Sharapova after she failed a drug test, and Tiger Woods during his numerous, very public scandals. Of course, Colin Kaepernick debate is a bit different, as this time, the issue is also highly political. 

As I mentioned in the beginning, #JustBurnIt has started. It has been reported that in just two days, Nike’s shares dropped 3 percent, though they are now on the rise again. In the meantime, Nike made its first official statement: “We believe Colin is one of the most inspirational athletes of this generation, who has leveraged the power of sport to help move the world forward,” Gino Fisanotti, Nike’s vice president of brand for North America. 

Is it “dare” to launch such a campaign, take the risk of losing money and stand by your decision despite recognizing your customers are sharply divided? Or, knowing that the brand is particularly strong among African-Americans, is it the “truth” of a well calculated market research? The process has just begun. We will all wait and see what the next steps will be. Who is going to win? Colin Kaepernick saying “Black Lives Matter” by rekindling an old protest, or Nike taking a stance on a very sensitive, political issue? 

Author: 
Esra Şengülen Ünsür
Vice President of the Board, Communication Consultancies Association of Turkey (İDA)
Managing Partner, Artı Communication Management

Journalism and fake-news, our role as educators

From EUPRERA news.

by Wim J.L. Elving,
professor Sustainable Communication,
Hanze University of Applied Sciences,
Groningen, the Netherlands

On Thursday, August 16th, 2018, 350 newspapers in the United States took a stand in support of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the importance of a free press to freedom and democracy. Eleven communications and public relations organizations expressed support for the critical role of a free press and the First Amendment. The Arthur W. Page Society did so by quoting Thomas Jefferson:

“The basis of our governments being the opinion of the people, the very first object should be to keep that right; and were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.”  This often-cited quote conveys the fundamental importance of today’s free press despite its articulation before electronic, digital and social media were invented. The dramatic expression by a founding father who was brutally criticized by the media of his time underscores that the standing of a free press transcends politics, geographies or other affiliations.

Although some UK based organizations did join this statement, European organizations, including EUPRERA and the EACD remained silent. Communication, PR, corporate communication all have close relations with journalists and other members of the press. In our profession we still rely on the media and journalists. There is a large cross-over between journalism and communication, and of course in our classes we highlight the importance of the press and the value of free press. I think the European PR and communication organizations missed an opportunity, by not expressing support to our American counterparts. In Europe we face the same troubles with some governments as well (Poland, Hungary, Turkey, Russia), but also with social media platforms, you use algorithms to feed us with news and other items but are not under control of a governing body.

We are seduced and influenced by bots, algorithms and other influencers, so we need to set up a new set of ethical rules, so we at least know that others are influencing us. In the past, this was simple, commercials on the television or advertisements in newspapers and magazine were easy to recognize and we could ignore these. Currently, persuasive communication is at a much more hidden, sneaky level. Now when you are in marketing you probably like the opportunities these give you, but in public relations, corporate communication and as a consumer, these options should scare you, just as you should be warned by all the political stuff happening on social media platforms, where public opinion became a business model and all kinds of influencers bought our attention for their terrible posts regarding anti-vaccination, Brexit, the US election, and who knows what more will come forward in how public opinion was falsely infiltrated with false information and dubious persuasive attempts.

In my humble opinion we, as communication scholars and teachers, have huge responsibilities. First, we need to develop state of the art ethics, that include extension of ethics on social media platforms. We have excellent rules, for instance the aforementioned A.W. Page Society, with its Page principles, but many alternatives and good text books are available, like the handbook of communication ethics, by George Cheney, Steve May, and Debashish Munshi (2011).

I think it is time to scale up our efforts regarding to ethics, free press and the independent position of journalists but also find ways (do research) into ethical issues and social media. We need to take part in the discussion regarding media ethics and inspire policy makers and politicians about the need to come forward with rules and regulations regarding ethics. It cannot be the that the CEO’s of Facebook, Instagram and Twitter are deciding what is allowed and what not?

The well-known, iconic picture above was banned from Facebook because of nudity of the girl who got her body burned because of a Napalm attack in the Vietnam war. Facebook decided that this picture should not be allowed on its platform. Only after protest they allowed it again.

Maybe we have taken for granted the role of the free press, like a hygiene factor, it is there, we have established quality journalism, and we do not need to pay much attention to it anymore. Recent developments made it in my view clear that this is not the case anymore. When the president of the most dominant democracy of the last 100 years is referring to fake news to hide his own incompetence’s, we need to scale up our efforts in training and education in ethics, to make sure that the next generation of communicators have the competencies and skills to defend our basic rights, our basic freedom and the value of the free press.

 

Reference

Cheney, G., May, S., & Munshi D., (2011). The handbook of Communication Ethics. London: Routledge.

 

Originally posted for Euprera. For the original article, click here.